The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
This guidance addresses the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The FAFSA is the unified application used to apply for federal student aid such as grants, loans, and work study. It is also used by public and private higher education institutions (like colleges and universities) and some private financial aid providers to determine whether an applicant qualifies for additional aid through his or her school.
You can access the FAFSA, fill out the online application, or print a paper application at www.fafsa.ed.gov.
The FAFSA calculates your potential aid based on your individual circumstances, the income of your household, and the possible contributions of your parents and spouse or “expected family contribution” (EFC). A dependent student’s EFC is calculated based on his or her parents’ adjusted gross income plus the student’s available income. An independent student’s EFC is calculated based on the student and spouse’s combined adjusted gross income, if the independent student is married.
Under the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), applicants with married same-sex parents were instructed to treat their parents as if they were divorced, and were therefore permitted only to list the contributions and income of one parent. Likewise, applicants with same-sex spouses were informed that their marriage was not recognized by the federal government and were not permitted to list their spouse on the application. Now that DOMA has been declared unconstitutional, applicants with same-sex married parents will be required to list the incomes and contributions of both of their parents, and applicants with same-sex spouses will be required to list their spouse as part of their household.
The FAFSA is a complex federal form. Please do your own research and consult a financial aid officer or the Department of Education for advice about your specific circumstances.
Prior to the Supreme Court’s ruling on DOMA, the Department of Education proposed an update to the FAFSA application that requires all applicants to list both of their legal parents regardless of marital status, provided they live together. This update only impacts applicants filling out the FAFSA for the 2014-2015 school year and beyond. When this new form comes into effect during the 2014-2015 funding cycle, marital status will no longer be relevant for applicants whose same- or different-sex legal parents are living together.
This guidance is for applicants using the 2013-2014 or 2014-2015 FAFSA forms.
Please be sure to refer to the section that corresponds to your FAFSA form.
This guidance cannot answer that question because every financial aid applicant’s situation is unique. Your eligibility for federal financial aid is an individual calculation based on your personal circumstances. Contact a financial aid officer for more information.
If you are using the 2014-2015 FAFSA, you are required to list both your parents (and their income and potential contributions) if they live together and if they are your legal parents, regardless of their marital status. This is true for same- and different-sex couples.
If you are using the 2014-2015 FAFSA, you will not need to list both of your parents if:
- They do not live together; OR
- They are not both your legal parents (list only the legal parent). If you have a step-parent married to your legal parent, however, you will be required to list the step-parent.
If you are using the 2013-2014 FAFSA, there are two circumstances under which you must list both of your parents on the FAFSA form:
- Your parents live together AND
- Are a different-sex couple and are married; OR
- Are a same-sex couple and were validly married in a jurisdiction where same-sex couples may marry, and both are your legal parents.
If your parents were married in a marriage equality state, but now live in a state that does not recognize their relationship, you must list them. FAFSA uses a place of celebration standard, which means even if your parents were married in a marriage equality state and then moved to a state that does not recognize their marriage, they are considered married for the purposes of FAFSA.
If you are using the 2013-2014 FAFSA, you do not need to list both of your parents if:
- Your parents are not married, regardless of their living situation;
- Your parents are divorced, regardless of their living situation; OR
- Your parents have a registered domestic partnership or civil union, regardless of their living situation.
Your parents qualify as “legal parents” if they are considered such under the state law where you live. Every state has different laws about who is a legal parent. Please contact a legal organization listed below for more information about your state. We also recommend that you consult with a lawyer in your state if you are unsure about who qualifies as your legal parents. As explained above, only legal parents who live together must both be listed. If you have two legal parents who do not live together, only the parent you live with should be listed.
A legal parent is anyone who:
- Is an adoptive parent; or
- Has a valid court order saying they are a parent.
Other people who may be your legal parent include:
- A biological parent, unless they are a sperm or egg donor or a surrogate under your state's laws, or their rights were terminated by a court;
- Parents who were married to or in a civil union or registered domestic partnership with a legal parent at the time you were born if you live in a state that recognizes their relationship; or
- In some states, parents who have lived with you and held themselves out as your parent, who were intended parents who conceived you through assisted reproduction, or who qualify under other laws in your state that recognize them as parents.
If you are using the 2014-2015 FAFSA, you must list your same-sex spouse if you were validly married in a jurisdiction that allows same-sex couples to marry, regardless of where you now live. If you are not married, even if you have a legally recognized civil union or domestic partnership, you do not need to list your partner.
If you are using the 2013-2014 FAFSA, you must list your same-sex spouse if you were married in a jurisdiction that allows same-sex couples to marry, regardless of where you now live. If you are not married, even if you have a legally recognized civil union or domestic partnership, you do not need to list your partner.
After DOMA Issue Areas
- Benefits and Protections for Civilian Federal Employees and their Spouses
- The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
- Family and Medical Leave Act for Non-Federal Employees
- Federal Taxes
- Medicare Spousal Protections
- Military Spousal Benefits
- Private Employment Issues and Benefits
- Social Security Spousal and Family Protections
- Supplemental Security Income for Aged, Blind, and Disabled (SSI)
- Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
- Veteran's Spousal Benefits