Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a federally-funded program run by states that provides limited cash assistance to extremely low-income parents and their children. States may have different names for this program, but it can be called public assistance, temporary assistance, general assistance or cash assistance. This program is extremely limited and provides small amounts of assistance to parents who have little or no income and very few assets for limited periods of time. It also provides some assistance directly for their children. Since the passage of Welfare Reform in the mid-90s, there are severe restrictions on the program, which vary state by state, and many extremely low-income parents do not qualify.
There is a requirement that adult recipients of TANF generally must work or participate in a welfare-to-work program, although the requirements vary widely from state to state. In many states, being eligible for TANF may also make you eligible for free child care, although child care may not actually be available.
TANF is run and designed by states, so each state has different rules for who qualifies and what aid is available. Generally, TANF may be available to pregnant women, legally-recognized parents and their children, and in some circumstances, stepparents or legally-recognized relatives caring for children. This means that in states where same-sex parents are not recognized under the law, non-biological parents may not be able to qualify for TANF. However, there are other assistance programs for relatives and non-relative caregivers who are caring for a child (but only if there is no legal parent raising the child). Some of these other programs may actually provide better aid than TANF.
There are federal rules that restrict how states run this program.
- If your state recognizes your marriage: Now that Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) has been overturned, every state that recognizes marriages between same-sex couples will recognize their marriages for all TANF purposes.
- If you are in a civil union or registered domestic partnership and your state recognizes your relationship: You may be treated as married for TANF purposes.
- If you live in a state that doesn’t recognize your relationship: You will probably not be recognized as married for TANF purposes.
If you and your partner or spouse are both legally recognized as parents, whether or not you are married should not affect your eligibility. If one spouse is not a legally-recognized parent, the income of a stepparent may be considered for TANF eligibility depending on your state, so in that circumstance, whether your marriage is recognized can directly affect your eligibility for TANF. Also, whether you are recognized as married to your partner, and whether you are both recognized as legal parents, impacts who must participate in a welfare-to-work program and whether you can receive child care assistance.
Many states also have various marriage incentive programs designed to encourage parents to marry each other, but these are focused on encouraging biological parents to marry.
Caution: For many couples, being married is not beneficial for TANF purposes. People receiving TANF should speak to an attorney if possible about their benefits before deciding to marry.
I have been told that I have to identify the biological father of my child to receive TANF. Is this true?
Federal law currently requires parents who receive TANF to “cooperate” in efforts to identify the biological father of their child – the federal law requiring this is written in gendered terms and assumes that a biological father must be identified. Parents who have conceived using a known sperm donor may be required to identify their sperm donor as the father of their child in order to receive benefits. If you live in a state with laws that say a sperm donor is not a parent (and you followed those laws) or if a court has already ruled that your donor is not a parent, you should not have to identify him as a father – although you may have to push the agency to recognize this. But, if your donor could be a legal parent under your state laws, you may be required to identify him as a legal father. Identifying your sperm donor as a father can have severe results – it can mean that he will be recognized as the legal second parent of your child for all purposes under the law, including the ability to seek custody or visitation, and can prevent a non-biological parent who is raising the child from being recognized. If you are facing this situation, please contact one of the legal groups listed at the end of this publication for more information.
The application process will be different in each state. Usually, there will be a county office where you can apply, or you may be able to apply online.
After DOMA Issue Areas
- Benefits and Protections for Civilian Federal Employees and their Spouses
- The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
- Family and Medical Leave Act for Non-Federal Employees
- Federal Taxes
- Medicare Spousal Protections
- Military Spousal Benefits
- Private Employment Issues and Benefits
- Social Security Spousal and Family Protections
- Supplemental Security Income for Aged, Blind, and Disabled (SSI)
- Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
- Veteran's Spousal Benefits